Published Dec 01 2008
It is a great day in America, we have moved past our racist undercurrent
by majority vote and have elected the First African American President
of the free world and the world rejoices with us. For it is America
that sets the standard for all other countries to live by. Even though
we cannot scream at the top of our lungs "Free At Last, Free At Last,
Thank God Almighty, We are Free At Last", we move closer to that day.
Congratulations America…. It is time for you to Atone for those that
came before Obama.
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an
English colonial venture in North America from 1620 – 1691. The first
settlement was at New Plymouth, a location previously surveyed and
named by Captain John Smith. The settlement, which served as the capital of the colony, is today the modern town of Plymouth, Massachusetts. At its height, Plymouth Colony occupied most of the southeastern portion of the modern state of Massachusetts.
Statue of Massasoit @ Plymouth Rock
Founded by a group of separatists who later came to be known as the Pilgrims, Plymouth Colony was, along with Jamestown, Virginia,
one of the earliest colonies to be founded by the English in North
America and the first sizable permanent English settlement in the New England region. When the Pilgrims first arrived on the shores the Natives, hid and observed for many weeks. They saw that the new comers were ill fit to make it in their new land. At first the Chief contemplated letting all of them starve, or to just kill them since they were weak, sick, and starving. Instead he instructed his Braves to kill food and to share corn and wild life with the strange settlers. Aided by Squanto, a Native American, the colony was able to establish a treaty with Chief Massasoit which helped to ensure the colony’s success.
The 1st Black Mark For America
From the first day the Pilgrims landed near the site of modern Provincetown on the tip of Cape Cod in November 1620 before moving to Plymouth, there were those that believed in the idea that all men were
created equal, and were given certain ineligible right by God that no
man could take away, then there were those rights that had to be
secured by law. The main reasons the Pilgrim left England,
were civil rights, freedom of religion, and high taxation. The Pilgrims were Puritans an offshoot of today’s Christians, a religious order that incorporated punishment and branding for transgressions. An adulterous woman was branded with an "A" upon her forehead and men were shakled and whipped. From these humble beginnings great things were to come, but bad preceeded the good.
The first thing that occurred was many settlers came to the new land, beating the Indian out of land by trading trinkets of shiny coins and tools. When the Indian decided the trinkets were not enough the Pilgrims forced him to accept or die. The Pilgrims now had the upper hand and the firearms. One of the reason relations between the tribes and the Pilgrims had deterioated was the original settlers had either died or had been replaced in the power structure by the new Pilgrims. These Pilgrims did not have the ties the orginal Pilgrims had since they did not go thru any of the hard times nor did they recall being saved by the good deeds of the Indians. They knew only greed and thought of themselves as superior and beleived that God had spared them to rule over the savages or to rid the land of them all together. Make no mistake all the atrocities were done in the name of Christanity and the belief that God had predestined them. Al these beliefs and greed took the New
World in a different direction and some of the worst atrocities in history occurred.
Then after living in harmony for many years the Pilgrims declared war their
welcoming committee, the Native Americans. Some believe that one of the
first disputes was over food, women, and land. Others believe that as
disease began to kill the Indian, they decided to kill the new
comers and burn them to eradicated the diseases that were afflicted with. The colony played a central role in King Philip’s War, one of the earliest and bloodiest of the Indian Wars.
King Philip’s War, sometimes called Metacom‘s War or Metacom’s Rebellion, was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England
and English colonists and their Native American allies from 1675–1676.
It continued in northern New England even after King Philip was killed,
(primarily in the Maine frontier), until a treaty was signed at Casco
Bay in April 1678. According to a combined estimate of loss of life in Schultz and Tougias’ "King Philip’s War, The History and Legacy of America’s Forgotten Conflict" (based on sources from the Department of Defense, the Bureau of Census, and the work of Colonial historian Francis Jennings),
800 out of 52,000 English colonists (1 out of every 65) and 3,000 out
of 20,000 natives (3 out of every 20) lost their lives due to the war,
which makes it proportionately one of the bloodiest and costliest in
the history of America.
For a people that traveled half way around the know world, to practice
religions and other freedoms, they soon found it necessary to develop
means of producing income, and it’s fertile soil farming and the
production of agriculture products became the main exported to England
and throughout the known world. As the colonies become more dependent
on these crops, it becomes necessary to find cheap labor to mass
produce and harvest these crops.
Slavery was not new to the landscape since Indians had slaves also.
It was a common practice to capture prisoners and make them their
servants, therefore slaves. There were a few white indentured servants
and share cropper in the colonies by now, but not nearly enough to
plant nor harvest the crops to fuel a new nation.
First, they turned to the Indian, but
the Indian proved to be very rebellious and were very susceptible to
all the germs and diseases that the white man carried, The Indian’s
immune system just was not strong enough.European explorers and settlers brought infectious diseases to North America against which the Native Americans had no natural immunity. Chicken pox and measles, though common and rarely fatal among Europeans, often proved deadly to Native Americans. Smallpox proved particularly deadly to Native American populations. Epidemics
often immediately followed European exploration and sometimes destroyed
entire village populations. While precise figures are difficult to
determine, some historians estimate that up to 80% of some Native populations died due to European diseases after first contact.  One theory of Columbian exchange suggests explorers from the Christopher Columbus expedition contracted syphilis
from indigenous peoples and carried it back to Europe, where it spread
widely. Other researchers believe that the disease existed in Europe
before Columbus and his men returned from exposure to indigenous
peoples of the Americas, but that they brought back a more virulent
form. (See Syphilis.)
In 1618–1619, smallpox wiped out 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans.
Historians believe Mohawk Native Americans were infected after contact
with children of Dutch traders in Albany in 1634. The disease swept
through Mohawk villages, reaching Native Americans at Lake Ontario in 1636, and the lands of the Iroquois by 1679, as it was carried by Mohawks and other Native Americans who traveled the trading routes. The high rate of fatalities caused breakdowns in Native American societies and disrupted generational exchanges of culture.
Similarly, after initial direct contact with European explorers in the 1770s, smallpox rapidly killed at least 30% of Northwest Coast Native Americans. For the next 80 to 100 years, smallpox and other diseases devastated native populations in the region. Puget Sound
area populations once as high as 37,000 were reduced to only 9,000
survivors by the time settlers arrived en masse in the mid-19th century.
Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians. By 1832, the federal government established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans (The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832). It was the first program created to address a health problem of American Indians.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an allegorical representation of Manifest Destiny. Here Columbia, intended as a personification of the United States,
leads civilization westward with American settlers, stringing telegraph
wire as she travels; she holds a school book. The different economic
activities of the pioneers are highlighted and, especially, the
changing forms of transportation. The Native Americans and wild animals
Manifest Destiny is the historical belief that the United States is destined and divinely ordained by God
to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic
seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Sometimes Manifest Destiny was
interpreted so widely as to include the eventual absorption of all
North America: Canada, Mexico, Cuba and Central America. Advocates of
Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only good, but that it
was obvious ("manifest") and certain ("destiny"). Originally a
political catch phrase of the 19th century, "Manifest Destiny"
eventually became a standard historical term, sometimes used as a
synonym for the expansion of the United States across the North
American continent which the belief inspired or was used to justify.
The Policy Of Genocide for Native Americans
The American policy of genocide of the Native Americans lasted from the 1670’s through 1865 and was supported by every president from George Washington through Abraham Lincoln. After this the Indian was kept in horrible conditions on reservations on infertile land in a further effort to eradicate them.
The Little Big Horn Monument
The 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe was also once known as the Battle of the Wabash.
The Battle of the Wabash, also known as St. Clair’s Defeat and the Battle of Wabash River, was fought on November 4, 1791, in the Northwest Territory between the United States and the Western Confederacy of American Indians, as part of the Northwest Indian War. It was a major Native American victory, and remains the greatest loss to Native American forces by the United States Army in history.The American Indians were led by Little Turtle of the Miamis, Blue Jacket of the Shawnees, and Buckongahelas of the Delawares (Lenape),
who led his 480 men to join the 700 warriors of Little Turtle and Blue
Jacket. In comparison, the opposing force of about 1,000 Americans were
led by General Arthur St. Clair who had proved to be an able commander during the American Revolutionary War.
However, the Indian confederacy eventually was victorious. The battle
was the most severe defeat ever suffered by the United States at the
hands of American Indians; indeed, in proportional terms of losses to
strength it was the worst defeat that United States forces have ever
suffered in battle.
As a result, President George Washington forced St. Clair to resign his post, and Congress initiated its first investigation of the executive branch. Of the 1,000 troops that St. Clair led into battle, only 48 escaped unharmed.
Native American Nations west of the Mississippi were numerous and
were the last to submit to U.S. authority. Conflicts generally known as
"Indian Wars" broke out between American government and Native American societies. The Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) was one of the greatest Native American victories. Defeats included the Creek War of 1813-14, the Sioux Uprising of 1862, the Sand Creek Massacre (1864) and the Wounded Knee in 1890. These conflicts were catalysts to the decline of dominant Native American culture.
|“||The Indian [was thought]|
as less than human and worthy only of extermination. We did shoot down
defenseless men, and women and children at places like Camp Grant, Sand
Creek, and Wounded Knee. We did feed strychnine to red warriors. We did
set whole villages of people out naked to freeze in the iron cold of
Montana winters. And we did confine thousands in what amounted to
— Wellman- The Indian Wars of the West, 1934
In the nineteenth century, the incessant westward expansion of the United States
incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle
further west, often by force, almost always reluctantly. Native
Americans believed this forced relocation illegal, given the Hopewell Treaty of 1785. Under President Andrew Jackson, United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the President to conduct treaties to exchange Native American land east of the Mississippi River for lands west of the river. As many as 100,000 Native Americans relocated to the West as a result of this Indian Removal
policy. In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many
Native Americans did remain in the East. In practice, great pressure
was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties.
The most egregious violation of the stated intention of the removal policy took place under the Treaty of New Echota, which was signed by a dissident faction of Cherokees
but not the elected leadership. President Jackson rigidly enforced the
treaty, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees on
the Trail of Tears. About 17,000 Cherokees, along with approximately 2,000 enslaved blacks held by Cherokees, were removed from their homes.
After the colonies revolted against the United Kingdom and established
the United States of America, the ideology of Manifest destiny became
integral to the American nationalist movement. In the late 18th
century, George Washington and Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preperation of American citizenship. Assimilation, (whether voluntary as with the Choctaw,
or forced) became a consistent policy through American administrations.
In the early decades of the 19th century, Native Americans of the
American Deep South
were removed from their homelands to accommodate American expansion. By
the American Civil War, many Native American nations had been relocated
west of the Mississippi River. Major Native American resistance took place in the form of "Indian Wars," which were frequent up until the 1890s.
Portrait of Native Americans from the Cherokee, Cheyenne, Choctaw,
Comanche, Iroquois, and Muscogee tribes in American attire. Photos
dates from 1868 to 1924.
Sitting Bull in 1885
Grand River, South Dakota
|Died||December 15, 1890|
Standing Rock Indian Reservation
|Native name||Tȟatȟaŋka Iyotȟaŋka (born Hoka Psice)|
|Known for||Battle of Little Big Horn|
|Cause of death||Shot by US authority|
|Resting place||South Dakota|
|Children||One Bull (adopted son)|
Crow Foot (son)
Many Horses (daughter)
Walks Looking (daughter)
|Parents||Jumping Bull (father)|
|Relatives||Big Foot (half brother)|
White Bull (nephew)
In 1851, the United States Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Act which authorized the creation of Indian reservations in modern day Oklahoma.
Relations between settlers and natives had grown increasingly worse as
the settlers encroached on territory and natural resources in the West.
By the late 1860’s, President Ulysses S. Grant
pursued a stated "Peace Policy" as a possible solution to the conflict.
The policy included a reorganization of the Indian Service, with the
goal of relocating various tribes from their ancestral homes to parcels
of lands established specifically for their inhabitation. The policy
called for the replacement of government officials by religious men,
nominated by churches, to oversee the Indian agencies on reservations
in order to teach Christianity to the native tribes. The Quakers
were especially active in this policy on reservations. The
"civilization" policy was aimed at eventually preparing the tribes for
Reservation treaties sometimes included stipend agreements, in which
the federal government would grant a certain amount of goods to a tribe
yearly. The implementation of the policy was erratic, however, and in
many cases the stipend goods were not delivered.