Looking Back Before We Move Forward ~ Part II

John Quincy Adams ~ Promotion of Slavery & Genocide of Indians Was In Full Effect

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adams served as the sixth President of the United States
from March 4, 1825, to March 3, 1829. He took the oath of office on a
book of laws, instead of the more traditional Bible, in order to
preserve the separation of church and state.[6][7]

Adams was elected a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts
after leaving office, the only president ever to do so, serving for the
last 17 years of his life. In the House he became a leading opponent of
the Slave Power and argued that if a civil war ever broke out the president could abolish slavery by using his war powers, which Abraham Lincoln partially did during the American Civil War in the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation.

Indian Reservation Controversy

The Indian Removal Policy was controversial from the start. Reservations were generally established by executive order.
In many cases, white settlers objected to the size of land parcels,
which were subsequently reduced. A report submitted to Congress in 1868
found widespread corruption among the federal Native American agencies
and generally poor conditions among the relocated tribes.

Many tribes ignored the relocation orders at first and were forced
onto their new limited land parcels. Enforcement of the policy required
the United States Army
to restrict the movements of various tribes. The pursuit of tribes in
order to force them back onto reservations led to a number of Native
American Wars. The most well known conflict was the Sioux War on the northern Great Plains, between 1876 and 1881, which included the Battle of Little Bighorn. Other famous wars in this regard included the Nez Perce War.

By the late 1870s, the policy established by President Grant was
regarded as a failure, primarily because it had resulted in some of the
bloodiest wars between Native Americans and the United States. By 1877,
President Rutherford B. Hayes
began phasing out the policy, and by 1882 all religious organizations
had relinquished their authority to the federal Indian agency.

Most Indian reservations, like the Laguna Indian reservation in New
Mexico (pictured 1943), are in the western United States, often in arid
regions unsuitable for agriculture.

In 1887, Congress undertook a significant change in reservation policy by the passage of the Dawes Act,
or General Allotment (Severalty) Act. The act ended the general policy
of granting land parcels to tribes as-a-whole by granting small parcels
of land to individual tribe members. In some cases, for example the Umatilla Indian Reservation,
after the individual parcels were granted out of reservation land, the
reservation area was reduced by giving the excess land to white
settlers. The individual allotment policy continued until 1934, when it
was terminated by the Indian Reorganization Act.

The Indian New Deal

The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Howard-Wheeler Act, was sometimes called the Indian New Deal.
It laid out new rights for Native Americans, reversed some of the
earlier privatization of their common holdings, and encouraged self-government
and land management by tribes. The act slowed the assignment of tribal
lands to individual members, and reduced the assignment of ‘extra’
holdings to nonmembers.

For the following twenty years, the U.S. government invested in
infrastructure, health care, and education on the reservations, and
over two million acres (8,000 km²) of land were returned to various
tribes. Within a decade of John Collier‘s
retirement (the initiator of the Indian New Deal) the government’s
position began to swing in the opposite direction. The new Indian
Commissioners Myers and Emmons introduced the idea of the "withdrawal
program" or "termination" which sought to end the government’s
responsibility and involvement with Indians and to force their
assimilation. The Indians would lose their lands but be compensated
(though those who lost their lands often weren’t). Though discontent
and social rejection killed the idea before it was fully implemented,
five tribes were terminated (Coushattas, Utes, Paiutes, Menominees and Klamaths)
and 114 groups in California lost their federal recognition as tribes.
Many individuals were also relocated to cities only to have a full
third of them return to their tribes in the decades following.

Domestic policies

During his term, he worked on developing the American System,
consisting of a high tariff to support internal improvements such as
road-building, and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise
and form a national currency. In his first annual message to Congress,
Adams presented an ambitious program for modernization that included
roads, canals, a national university, an astronomical observatory, and
other initiatives. The support for his proposals was limited, even from
his own party. His critics accused him of unseemly arrogance because of
his narrow victory. Most of his initiatives were opposed in Congress by
Jackson‘s supporters, who remained outraged over the 1824 election.

Nonetheless, some of his proposals were adopted, specifically the extension of the Cumberland Road into Ohio with surveys for its continuation west to St. Louis; the beginning of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the construction of the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal and the Portland to Louisville Canal around the falls of the Ohio; the connection of the Great Lakes to the Ohio River system in Ohio and Indiana; and the enlargement and rebuilding of the Dismal Swamp Canal in North Carolina.

Another blow to Adams’ presidency was his generous policy toward Native
Americans. Settlers on the frontier, who were constantly seeking to
move westward, cried for a more expansionist policy. When the federal
government tried to assert authority on behalf of the Cherokees, the
governor of Georgia took up arms. It was a sign of nullification that
foreshadowed the secession of the Southern states during the Civil War.
Adams defended his domestic agenda as continuing Monroe’s policies. In
contrast, Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren instigated the policy of
Indian removal to the west (i.e. the Trail of Tears).

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The Slave Power (sometimes referred to as the "Slaveocracy") was a term used in the Northern United States (primarily in the period 1840-1875) to characterize the political power of the slaveholding class in the South.




The problem posed by slavery, according to many Northern politicians, was not so much the mistreatment of slaves (a theme that abolitionists emphasized), but rather the political threat to American republicanism, especially as embraced in Northern free states. The Free Soil Party first raised this warning in 1848, arguing that the annexation of Texas as a slave state was a terrible mistake. The Free Soilers rhetoric was taken up by the Republican party as it emerged in 1854.

The Republicans also argued that slavery was economically
inefficient, compared to free labor, and was a deterrent to the
long-term modernization of America. Worse, said the Republicans, the
Slave Power, deeply entrenched in the "Solid South", was systematically seizing control of the White House, the Congress, and the Supreme Court. Senator and governor Salmon P. Chase of Ohio was an articulate enemy of the Slave Power, as was Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts.

House divided

In his celebrated "House Divided" speech of June 1858, Abraham Lincoln charged that Senator Stephen A. Douglas, President James Buchanan, his predecessor, Franklin Pierce, and Chief Justice Roger Taney were all part of a plot to nationalize slavery, as proven by the Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision of 1857.

Other Republicans pointed to the violence in Kansas, the brutal assault on Senator Sumner, attacks upon the abolitionist press, and efforts to take over Cuba (Ostend Manifesto) as evidence that the Slave Power was violent, aggressive, and expansive.

The only solution, Republicans insisted, was a new commitment to
free labor, and a deliberate effort to stop any more territorial
expansion of slavery. Northern Democrats answered that it was all an
exaggeration and that the Republicans were paranoid. Their Southern
colleagues spoke of secession, arguing that the John Brown raid of 1859 proved that the Republicans were ready to attack their region and destroy their way of life.

In congratulating President-elect Lincoln in 1860, Salmon P. Chase
exclaimed, "The object of my wishes and labors for nineteen years is
accomplished in the overthrow of the Slave Power", adding that the way
was now clear "for the establishment of the policy of Freedom" —
something that would come only after four destructive years of Civil War.

The Slave Years Another Black Mark For America

It seems that as soon as the New Americans finished breaking the back of the Native American the new Christians brought in another group of humans to abuse.  These two categories of humans, American Indians and African slaves  lived a parallel life of abuse, but since the Native Americans were total failures as slaves they had to be disposed of, thus the African became much more of a commodity.

Receipt for $500.00 payment for slave, 1840. (US$10,300 adjusted for inflation as of 2007[update].)
"Recd of Judge S. Williams his notes for five hundred Dollars in full
payment for a negro man named Ned which negro I warrant to be sound and
well and I do bind myself by these presents to forever warrant and
defend the right and Title of the said negro to the said Williams his
heirs or assigns against the legal claims of all persons whatsoever.
Witness my hand and seal this day and year above written. Eliza Wallace

The first Africans were brought to Jamestown in 1619 by a Dutch slave
ship which was trying to get to the Spanish possessions further south
but got blown off course. The English colonists bought the human cargo
but did not make slaves of them, instead they made them indentured
servants. When they had served their indentures they were freed, given
land and tools and accepted as members of the colony just like any
English indentured servants. They were even permitted to vote. In 1619,
a Dutch ship arrived in Jamestown, Virginia. It picked up tobacco and
paid for it with 20 black African captives which the Dutch probably had
seized from a slave trader bound for the Spanish West Indies. By 1700,
enslaved blacks would comprise a majority of the work force in some of
the southern colonies. More Africans were brought to the colony and
sold but their indentures were gradually lengthened until they became
eventually life long (terms of 99 years for instance) and eventually
they were just enslaved outright.
Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. Before the widespread establishment of chattel slavery, much labor was organized under a system of bonded labor known as indentured servitude.

The 17th century saw an increase in shipments with slaves arriving in the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. Irish immigrants brought slaves to Montserrat in 1651. And in 1655, slaves arrive in Belize.

Economics of slavery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Slave ship diagram

The Red Slave States

The plantation economies of the New World were built on slave labor. Seventy percent of the slaves brought to the new world were used to produce sugar, the most labor-intensive crop. The rest were employed harvesting coffee, cotton, and tobacco, and in some cases in mining.
The West Indian colonies of the European powers were some of their most
important possessions, so they went to extremes to protect and retain
them. For example, at the end of the Seven Years’ War in 1763, France agreed to cede the vast territory of New France to the victors in exchange for keeping the minute Antillean island of Guadeloupe.

Slave trade profits have been the object of many fantasies. Returns
for the investors were not absurdly high (around 6% in France in the
18th century), but they were considerably higher than domestic
alternatives (in the same century, around 5%). Risks — maritime and
commercial — were important for individual voyages. Investors mitigated
it by buying small shares of many ships at the same time. In that way,
they were able to diversify a large part of the risk away. Between
voyages, ship shares could be freely sold and bought. All these made
the slave trade a very interesting investment.[59]

By far the most successful West Indian colonies in 1800 belonged to
the United Kingdom. After entering the sugar colony business late,
British naval supremacy and control over key islands such as Jamaica, Trinidad, the Leeward Islands and Barbados and the territory of British Guiana
gave it an important edge over all competitors; while many British did
not make gains, a handful of individuals made small fortunes. This
advantage was reinforced when France lost its most important colony, St. Dominigue (western Hispaniola, now Haiti), to a slave revolt in 1791[60]
and supported revolts against its rival Britain, after the 1793 French
revolution in the name of liberty. Before 1791, British sugar had to be
protected to compete against cheaper French sugar.

After 1791, the British islands produced the most sugar, and the
British people quickly became the largest consumers. West Indian sugar
became ubiquitous as an additive to Indian tea. Nevertheless, the
profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to less than 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution in the latter half of the 1700s.[61]



World population (in millions)[62]
Year 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 1999

World 791 978 1,262 1,650 2,521 5,978

Africa 106 107 111 133 221 767

Asia 502 635 809 947 1,402 3,634

Europe 163 203 276 408 547 729

Latin America and the Caribbean 16 24 38 74 167 511

Northern America 2 7 26 82 172 307

Oceania 2 2 2 6 13 30

World population (by percentage distribution)
Year 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 1999

World 100 100 100 100 100 100

Africa 13.4 10.9 8.8 8.1 8.8 12.8

Asia 63.5 64.9 64.1 57.4 55.6 60.8

Europe 20.6 20.8 21.9 24.7 21.7 12.2

Latin America and the Caribbean 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.5 6.6 8.5

Northern America 0.3 0.7 2.1 5.0 6.8 5.1

Oceania 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.5

Historian Walter Rodney
has argued that at the start of the slave trade in the 16th century,
even though there was a technological gap between Europe and Africa, it
was not very substantial. Both continents were using Iron Age
technology. The major advantage that Europe had was in ship building.
During the period of slavery the populations of Europe and the Americas
grew exponentially while the population of Africa remained stagnant.
Rodney contended that the profits from slavery were used to fund
economic growth and technological advancement in Europe and the
Americas. Based on earlier theories by Eric Williams, he asserted that
the industrial revolution was at least in part funded by agricultural
profits from the Americas. He cited examples such as the invention of the steam engine by James Watt, which was funded by plantation owners from the Caribbean[63].

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Looking Back Before We Move Forward ~ Part I

Published Dec 01 2008

It is a great day in America, we have moved past our racist undercurrent
by majority vote and have elected the First African American President
of the free world and the world rejoices with us. For it is America
that sets the standard for all other countries to live by. Even though
we cannot scream at the top of our lungs "Free At Last, Free At Last,
Thank God Almighty, We are Free At Last", we move closer to that day.
Congratulations America…. It is time for you to Atone for those that
came before Obama.

So we look back before we look forward:

Embarkation of the Pilgrims

Pilgrims @ Plymouth Rock

Plymouth Rock

Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an
English colonial venture in North America from 1620 – 1691. The first
settlement was at New Plymouth, a location previously surveyed and
named by Captain John Smith. The settlement, which served as the capital of the colony, is today the modern town of Plymouth, Massachusetts. At its height, Plymouth Colony occupied most of the southeastern portion of the modern state of Massachusetts.

Statue of Massasoit @ Plymouth Rock

Founded by a group of separatists who later came to be known as the Pilgrims, Plymouth Colony was, along with Jamestown, Virginia,
one of the earliest colonies to be founded by the English in North
America and the first sizable permanent English settlement in the New England region. When the Pilgrims first arrived on the shores the Natives, hid and observed for many weeks.  They saw that the new comers were ill fit to make it in their new land.  At first the Chief contemplated letting all of them starve, or to just kill them since they were weak, sick, and starving.  Instead he instructed his Braves to kill food and to share corn and wild life with the strange settlers.  Aided by Squanto, a Native American, the colony was able to establish a treaty with Chief Massasoit which helped to ensure the colony’s success. 


The 1st Black Mark For America

From the first day the Pilgrims landed near the site of modern Provincetown on the tip of Cape Cod in November 1620 before moving to Plymouth, there were those that believed in the idea that all men were
created equal, and were given certain ineligible right by God that no
man could take away, then there were those rights that had to be
secured by law. The main reasons the Pilgrim left England,
were civil rights,  freedom of religion, and high taxation.  The Pilgrims were Puritans an offshoot of today’s Christians, a religious order that incorporated punishment and branding for transgressions.  An adulterous woman was branded with an "A" upon her forehead and men were shakled and whipped. From these humble beginnings great things were to come, but bad preceeded the good. 

The first thing that occurred was many settlers came to the new land, beating the Indian out of land by trading trinkets of shiny coins and tools.  When the Indian decided the trinkets were not enough the Pilgrims forced him to accept or die.  The Pilgrims now had the upper hand and the firearms.  One of the reason relations between the tribes and the Pilgrims had deterioated was the original settlers had either died or had been replaced in the power structure by the new Pilgrims.  These Pilgrims did not have the ties the orginal Pilgrims had since they did not go thru any of the hard times nor did they recall being saved by the good deeds of the Indians.  They knew only greed and thought of themselves as superior and beleived that God had spared them to rule over the savages or to rid the land of them all together.  Make no mistake all the atrocities were done in the name of Christanity and the belief that God had predestined them.  Al these beliefs and greed took the New
World in a different direction and some of the worst atrocities in history occurred.

Then after living in harmony for many years the Pilgrims declared war their
welcoming committee, the Native Americans. Some believe that one of the
first disputes was over food, women, and land. Others believe that as
disease began to kill the Indian, they decided to kill the new
comers and burn them to eradicated the diseases that were afflicted with.   The colony played a central role in King Philip’s War, one of the earliest and bloodiest of the Indian Wars.

King Philip’s War, sometimes called Metacom‘s War or Metacom’s Rebellion,[1] was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England
and English colonists and their Native American allies from 1675–1676.
It continued in northern New England even after King Philip was killed,
(primarily in the Maine frontier), until a treaty was signed at Casco
Bay in April 1678.[2] According to a combined estimate of loss of life in Schultz and Tougias’ "King Philip’s War, The History and Legacy of America’s Forgotten Conflict" (based on sources from the Department of Defense, the Bureau of Census, and the work of Colonial historian Francis Jennings),
800 out of 52,000 English colonists (1 out of every 65) and 3,000 out
of 20,000 natives (3 out of every 20) lost their lives due to the war,
which makes it proportionately one of the bloodiest and costliest in
the history of America.

For a people that traveled half way around the know world, to practice
religions and other freedoms, they soon found it necessary to develop
means of producing income, and it’s fertile soil farming and the
production of agriculture products became the main exported to England
and throughout the known world. As the colonies become more dependent
on these crops, it becomes necessary to find cheap labor to mass
produce and harvest these crops. 

Slavery was not new to the landscape since Indians had slaves also.
It was a common practice to capture prisoners and make them their
servants, therefore slaves. There were a few white indentured servants
and share cropper in the colonies by now, but not nearly enough to
plant nor harvest the crops to fuel a new nation.

First, they turned to the Indian, but
the Indian proved to be very rebellious and were very susceptible to
all the germs and diseases that the white man carried, The Indian’s
immune system just was not strong enough.
European explorers and settlers brought infectious diseases to North America against which the Native Americans had no natural immunity. Chicken pox and measles, though common and rarely fatal among Europeans, often proved deadly to Native Americans. Smallpox proved particularly deadly to Native American populations.[19] Epidemics
often immediately followed European exploration and sometimes destroyed
entire village populations. While precise figures are difficult to
determine, some historians estimate that up to 80% of some Native populations died due to European diseases after first contact. [20] One theory of Columbian exchange suggests explorers from the Christopher Columbus expedition contracted syphilis
from indigenous peoples and carried it back to Europe, where it spread
widely. Other researchers believe that the disease existed in Europe
and Asia
before Columbus and his men returned from exposure to indigenous
peoples of the Americas, but that they brought back a more virulent
form. (See Syphilis.)

In 1618–1619, smallpox wiped out 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans.[21]
Historians believe Mohawk Native Americans were infected after contact
with children of Dutch traders in Albany in 1634. The disease swept
through Mohawk villages, reaching Native Americans at Lake Ontario in 1636, and the lands of the Iroquois by 1679, as it was carried by Mohawks and other Native Americans who traveled the trading routes.[22] The high rate of fatalities caused breakdowns in Native American societies and disrupted generational exchanges of culture.

Similarly, after initial direct contact with European explorers in the 1770s, smallpox rapidly killed at least 30% of Northwest Coast Native Americans. For the next 80 to 100 years, smallpox and other diseases devastated native populations in the region. Puget Sound
area populations once as high as 37,000 were reduced to only 9,000
survivors by the time settlers arrived en masse in the mid-19th century.[23]

Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians.[24][25] By 1832, the federal government established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans (The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832). It was the first program created to address a health problem of American Indians.[26][27]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an allegorical representation of Manifest Destiny. Here Columbia, intended as a personification of the United States,
leads civilization westward with American settlers, stringing telegraph
wire as she travels; she holds a school book. The different economic
activities of the pioneers are highlighted and, especially, the
changing forms of transportation. The Native Americans and wild animals

Manifest Destiny is the historical belief that the United States is destined and divinely ordained by God[1]
to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic
seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Sometimes Manifest Destiny was
interpreted so widely as to include the eventual absorption of all
North America: Canada, Mexico, Cuba and Central America. Advocates of
Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only good, but that it
was obvious ("manifest") and certain ("destiny"). Originally a
political catch phrase of the 19th century, "Manifest Destiny"
eventually became a standard historical term, sometimes used as a
synonym for the expansion of the United States across the North
American continent which the belief inspired or was used to justify.

The Policy Of Genocide for Native Americans

The American policy of genocide of the Native Americans lasted from the 1670’s through 1865 and was supported by every president from George Washington through Abraham Lincoln.  After this the Indian was kept in horrible conditions on reservations on infertile land in a further effort to eradicate them.

The Little Big Horn Monument

The 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe was also once known as the Battle of the Wabash.

The Battle of the Wabash, also known as St. Clair’s Defeat and the Battle of Wabash River, was fought on November 4, 1791, in the Northwest Territory between the United States and the Western Confederacy of American Indians, as part of the Northwest Indian War. It was a major Native American victory, and remains the greatest loss to Native American forces by the United States Army in history.The American Indians were led by Little Turtle of the Miamis, Blue Jacket of the Shawnees, and Buckongahelas of the Delawares (Lenape),
who led his 480 men to join the 700 warriors of Little Turtle and Blue
Jacket. In comparison, the opposing force of about 1,000 Americans were
led by General Arthur St. Clair who had proved to be an able commander during the American Revolutionary War.
However, the Indian confederacy eventually was victorious. The battle
was the most severe defeat ever suffered by the United States at the
hands of American Indians; indeed, in proportional terms of losses to
strength it was the worst defeat that United States forces have ever
suffered in battle.

As a result, President George Washington forced St. Clair to resign his post, and Congress initiated its first investigation of the executive branch. Of the 1,000 troops that St. Clair led into battle, only 48 escaped unharmed.

Native American Nations west of the Mississippi were numerous and
were the last to submit to U.S. authority. Conflicts generally known as
"Indian Wars" broke out between American government and Native American societies. The Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) was one of the greatest Native American victories. Defeats included the Creek War of 1813-14, the Sioux Uprising of 1862, the Sand Creek Massacre (1864) and the Wounded Knee in 1890.[46] These conflicts were catalysts to the decline of dominant Native American culture.

The Indian [was thought]
as less than human and worthy only of extermination. We did shoot down
defenseless men, and women and children at places like Camp Grant, Sand
Creek, and Wounded Knee. We did feed strychnine to red warriors. We did
set whole villages of people out naked to freeze in the iron cold of
Montana winters. And we did confine thousands in what amounted to
concentration camps.

— Wellman- The Indian Wars of the West, 1934[47]

The Trail of Tears, painted by Robert Lindneux in 1942

In the nineteenth century, the incessant westward expansion of the United States
incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle
further west, often by force, almost always reluctantly. Native
Americans believed this forced relocation illegal, given the Hopewell Treaty of 1785. Under President Andrew Jackson, United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the President to conduct treaties to exchange Native American land east of the Mississippi River for lands west of the river. As many as 100,000 Native Americans relocated to the West as a result of this Indian Removal
policy. In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many
Native Americans did remain in the East. In practice, great pressure
was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties.

The most egregious violation of the stated intention of the removal policy took place under the Treaty of New Echota, which was signed by a dissident faction of Cherokees
but not the elected leadership. President Jackson rigidly enforced the
treaty, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees on
the Trail of Tears. About 17,000 Cherokees, along with approximately 2,000 enslaved blacks held by Cherokees, were removed from their homes.[48]

After the colonies revolted against the United Kingdom and established
the United States of America, the ideology of Manifest destiny became
integral to the American nationalist movement. In the late 18th
century, George Washington and Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preperation of American citizenship.[3][4][5][6][7] Assimilation, (whether voluntary as with the Choctaw,[8][9]
or forced) became a consistent policy through American administrations.
In the early decades of the 19th century, Native Americans of the
American Deep South
were removed from their homelands to accommodate American expansion. By
the American Civil War, many Native American nations had been relocated
west of the Mississippi River. Major Native American resistance took place in the form of "Indian Wars," which were frequent up until the 1890s.

Portrait of Native Americans from the Cherokee, Cheyenne, Choctaw,
Comanche, Iroquois, and Muscogee tribes in American attire. Photos
dates from 1868 to 1924.

Sitting Bull

Sitting Bull in 1885



c. 1831[1]
Grand River, South Dakota


December 15, 1890
Standing Rock Indian Reservation

Native name

Tȟatȟaŋka Iyotȟaŋka (born Hoka Psice)

Known for

Battle of Little Big Horn

Cause of death

Shot by US authority

Resting place

South Dakota


Light Hair
Four Robes
Scarlet Woman


One Bull (adopted son)
Crow Foot (son)
Many Horses (daughter)
Walks Looking (daughter)
(adopted daughter)


Jumping Bull (father)
Her-Holy-Door (mother)


Big Foot (half brother)
White Bull (nephew)


Reservation beginnings

See also: Indian removal

In 1851, the United States Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Act which authorized the creation of Indian reservations in modern day Oklahoma.
Relations between settlers and natives had grown increasingly worse as
the settlers encroached on territory and natural resources in the West.

By the late 1860’s, President Ulysses S. Grant
pursued a stated "Peace Policy" as a possible solution to the conflict.
The policy included a reorganization of the Indian Service, with the
goal of relocating various tribes from their ancestral homes to parcels
of lands established specifically for their inhabitation. The policy
called for the replacement of government officials by religious men,
nominated by churches, to oversee the Indian agencies on reservations
in order to teach Christianity to the native tribes. The Quakers
were especially active in this policy on reservations. The
"civilization" policy was aimed at eventually preparing the tribes for
citizenship.[citation needed]

Reservation treaties sometimes included stipend agreements, in which
the federal government would grant a certain amount of goods to a tribe
yearly. The implementation of the policy was erratic, however, and in
many cases the stipend goods were not delivered.[citation needed]

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The Last days Of My Man Georgie Boy

Say what you may, but this President carried a big stick, you did not get on his bad side.. ,He was what every Straight shooting Texan represents, "A boot that will kick your ass or turn your air off at the drop of a hat".  Texans do not wait for heroes, we are the hero when the ass kicking is at hand.  There are not many things that I agreed with during this administration, but as an American Citizen I can believe there were more things that I did agree with, than I will ever actually know.  One thing I can say about George W Bush, you did not have to wait long before you knew how he felt about anything and once that decision was made he did not waiver from it.  You  have to respect a man that stands by his decisions and is accountable for those decisions.  If he told you the sky was green and you looked up and it was blue, you might as well agree with him, because it was gonna be the color he said it was whether you liked it or not.  The other thing I liked about George was he tried to do things to help the American people, he just got distracted on the Iraq War and it drained the coffers.  You see, Texans do not like to lose, hell look at the way he stole the first election.  Another thing was he believed in the guillotine…by this I mean the Death Penalty not only as President, but as the Governor of Texas also.  Like any True Texan the cost of your transgressions is and always will be death.  Be it in the local criminal sector or the worldwide criminal sector, you shall surely die.  I liked that and will always admire him for it, you see too many people look for the most popular way out, not George.  He got the information on issues and was a decisive decision maker.

You might not have liked the decisions he made,but you damn sure were gonna have to learn to live with them.  For a details review of the issues President George W. Bush faced go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Bush.  It might seem that I am rewriting the history of our 43rd President, but we must  give him the respect he is due.  I cursed him many a day during his watch, but at the end of the day he was still my President.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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For other persons of the same name, see George Bush.

George W. Bush
George W. Bush

In office
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009

Vice President

Dick Cheney

Preceded by

Bill Clinton

Succeeded by

Barack Obama

In office
January 17, 1995 – December 21, 2000


Bob Bullock (1995–1999)
Rick Perry (1999–2000)

Preceded by

Ann Richards

Succeeded by

Rick Perry


July 6, 1946 (1946-07-06) (age 62)
New Haven, Connecticut

Birth name

George Walker Bush



Political party



Laura Bush


Barbara Pierce Bush and Jenna Welch Hager


Dallas, Texas
Crawford, Texas

Alma mater

Yale University
Harvard Business School



(oil, baseball)


United Methodist[1][2]


George W. Bush's signature


Bush Presidential Library
Bush Presidential Center
The White House Archived

Military service


Texas Air National Guard
Alabama Air National Guard

Years of service



First Lieutenant

George Walker Bush (En-us-George Walker Bush.ogg /ˈdʒɔrdʒ ˈwɔːkɚ ˈbʊʃ/ (help·info); born July 6, 1946) served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 before being sworn in as President on January 20, 2001.

Bush is the eldest son of 41st U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush. After graduating from Yale University, Bush worked in his family’s oil businesses. He married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the United States House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards to become Governor of Texas in 1994. In a close and controversial election, Bush was elected President in 2000 as the Republican candidate, receiving a majority of the electoral votes, but losing the popular vote to then Vice President Al Gore.

Eight months into Bush’s first term as President, the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks occurred, and Bush announced a global War on Terrorism, ordered an invasion of Afghanistan that same year and an invasion of Iraq
in 2003. In addition to national security issues, President Bush
promoted policies on the economy, health care, education and social
security reform. He signed into law broad tax cuts[3], the No Child Left Behind Act and Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors. His tenure saw a national debate on immigration and social security.[4]

Bush successfully ran for re-election against Democratic Senator John Kerry in 2004, garnering 50.7% of the popular vote to his opponent’s 48.3%. After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from some sources.[5][6][7] In 2005, the Bush administration dealt with widespread criticism over its handling of Hurricane Katrina. In December 2007, the United States entered the second-longest post-World War II recession,[8]
and his administration took more direct control of the economy,
enacting multiple economic stimulus packages. Though Bush was a popular
president for much of his first term,[9]
his popularity declined toward the end of his second term to a
near-record low. He holds the record for the highest ever approval
rating as well as one of the lowest ever of an American President.[10][11][12][13][14]



I am glad to see him go since I never wanted him to serve a 2nd term anyway.  Well to be totally honest I never wanted him to be President in the first place.
We have come to equate W as the epitome of stupidity, but have you ever just slowed down and thought this guy ran the free world for 8 years.  He ran it into a ditch, but he ran it just the same.  A man does not get to be the President of the United States being a total nincompoop.

Posted in Ghetto Phylosophy | Leave a comment

Money For Everyone But Citizens Nov 18, 2008

Entry for Nov 18, 2008  Lenders Ask Please Can I Borrow $700 Billion Mr. Taxpayer



controlled House & Congress & Federal Reserve Chairman
Benankie: Please help us, we are in a downward spiral, the economy is
in a tailspin and the banks are defaulting on loans and gonna have to
close their doors unless the American taxpayers lend us $700 Billion to
fix the problem and up the FDIC insurance temporarily to 250K to safe
guard moneys that companies have in banks.

As you remember the
congress got together and delivered on the billions of dollars
requested and the arrogance again resurfaced as the wrangling began
almost before the money was delivered. CIG threw a $145k celebration
party and the good times were here again; then they made their we have
arrived speech.

Oh thank you, thank you very much for bailing
us out. We, the lending and credit institutions are totally grateful
for your assistance. Oh, yes we will help all you save your homes from
foreclosure and lower the interest rates and become a productive
partner in the revitalization of the American economy.

Ca Ching Ca Ching billion more was requested to be added to the 700 billion since they got it so easily.

Paulson dropped the boom, the old bait and switch was in full effect.
The New God of The Treasury Paulson said, we are sorry but we cannot
use the money to bail out home owners, it has been earmarked for the
financial institutions. In
other words Thank You and fuck you!!! Go live under the bridge. Let
your new Nigga President save you when he gets in office. We gonna do
as we please, as long as we are in power.

Now for all you
idiots that voted for Republicans, I hope you are the first to move
under the bridge, you unpatriotic SOBs. I have no sympathy for you,
with your no good hate mongering asses. For the rest of us die hard
Blue Bloods, we must pray for January 21st to come quickly so we can
kick the bastards out and get on with the healing of the Nation.

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President Barack Obama!!!!!!

What A Day… The Dream Lives On

Not only am I talking about Dr. King’s dream I am speaking of The American Dream….. It may not be a nightmare after all. Long Live The Great Liberator!!!!!! President Barack Obama!!!!!!


President Obama and the Real Democrats get out hammers and nails; A GOP
wrecking crew begins the normal agenda, stumbling blocks, doublespeak
& robbery but do not be fooled!!!

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November 05, 2008 Obama Is President Of the United States


Live text reaction

Electoral College Votes

Winning post 270

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Did You Vote Yet?

Did You Vote Yet?  Well Vote Straight Democratic Ticket!!!!

  I normally would not suggest this but damn the more I research the worse this thing gets and the damn GOPers are the
worst thing that could happen to America right now, so I am like Bush Sr "Read My Letters, Vote Straight Democratic Ticket"


Let’s Kick The GOP SOB’s Outta Washington

not long ago when a very popular Governor of the Great Red State of
Texas, (yes Texas is The leader of the Red States for the GOP),was
asked if he would give a day off for elections and he said the Negro
voters have such a small impact on the election and if you give them a
day off they will just go fishing. That man was Gov Clemans and he was
reelected in Texas after that blatant true statement, cause if we did
not go fishing we sure the hell did not go vote or his sorry ass would
have been gone in a twinkle of the eye.


My African American Brothers: Are we going fishing Brother.. While our
great Rescuer stands tall and fights the good fight for your rights,
your livelihood, trying his best to awaken a down beaten American
Middle and Have-Not Class that knows even our children’s future is at
stake. Well those that believe n red do not believe there are any
African American fathers in the household anyway. Let’s change this or
do you care about your children? Have we become pacifist bitches or
will we finally straighten our backs and be the men we were born to be.
Maybe it is too late for some of you to vote because you did not
register, well get your shit together, your life and the rest of
American existence depends on this day forward. The rest of us will go
elect our new President, but you stand strong ready to stand up against
an oppressive elite upper class, that will do whatever it takes to
steal this election. That is why McCain still is so confident, so Stand On The Ready!!!

Posted in The American Delima | Leave a comment