John Quincy Adams ~ Promotion of Slavery & Genocide of Indians Was In Full Effect
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adams served as the sixth President of the United States
from March 4, 1825, to March 3, 1829. He took the oath of office on a
book of laws, instead of the more traditional Bible, in order to
preserve the separation of church and state.
Adams was elected a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts
after leaving office, the only president ever to do so, serving for the
last 17 years of his life. In the House he became a leading opponent of
the Slave Power and argued that if a civil war ever broke out the president could abolish slavery by using his war powers, which Abraham Lincoln partially did during the American Civil War in the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation.
Indian Reservation Controversy
The Indian Removal Policy was controversial from the start. Reservations were generally established by executive order.
In many cases, white settlers objected to the size of land parcels,
which were subsequently reduced. A report submitted to Congress in 1868
found widespread corruption among the federal Native American agencies
and generally poor conditions among the relocated tribes.
Many tribes ignored the relocation orders at first and were forced
onto their new limited land parcels. Enforcement of the policy required
the United States Army
to restrict the movements of various tribes. The pursuit of tribes in
order to force them back onto reservations led to a number of Native
American Wars. The most well known conflict was the Sioux War on the northern Great Plains, between 1876 and 1881, which included the Battle of Little Bighorn. Other famous wars in this regard included the Nez Perce War.
By the late 1870s, the policy established by President Grant was
regarded as a failure, primarily because it had resulted in some of the
bloodiest wars between Native Americans and the United States. By 1877,
President Rutherford B. Hayes
began phasing out the policy, and by 1882 all religious organizations
had relinquished their authority to the federal Indian agency.
In 1887, Congress undertook a significant change in reservation policy by the passage of the Dawes Act,
or General Allotment (Severalty) Act. The act ended the general policy
of granting land parcels to tribes as-a-whole by granting small parcels
of land to individual tribe members. In some cases, for example the Umatilla Indian Reservation,
after the individual parcels were granted out of reservation land, the
reservation area was reduced by giving the excess land to white
settlers. The individual allotment policy continued until 1934, when it
was terminated by the Indian Reorganization Act.
The Indian New Deal
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Howard-Wheeler Act, was sometimes called the Indian New Deal.
It laid out new rights for Native Americans, reversed some of the
earlier privatization of their common holdings, and encouraged self-government
and land management by tribes. The act slowed the assignment of tribal
lands to individual members, and reduced the assignment of ‘extra’
holdings to nonmembers.
For the following twenty years, the U.S. government invested in
infrastructure, health care, and education on the reservations, and
over two million acres (8,000 km²) of land were returned to various
tribes. Within a decade of John Collier‘s
retirement (the initiator of the Indian New Deal) the government’s
position began to swing in the opposite direction. The new Indian
Commissioners Myers and Emmons introduced the idea of the "withdrawal
program" or "termination" which sought to end the government’s
responsibility and involvement with Indians and to force their
assimilation. The Indians would lose their lands but be compensated
(though those who lost their lands often weren’t). Though discontent
and social rejection killed the idea before it was fully implemented,
five tribes were terminated (Coushattas, Utes, Paiutes, Menominees and Klamaths)
and 114 groups in California lost their federal recognition as tribes.
Many individuals were also relocated to cities only to have a full
third of them return to their tribes in the decades following.
During his term, he worked on developing the American System,
consisting of a high tariff to support internal improvements such as
road-building, and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise
and form a national currency. In his first annual message to Congress,
Adams presented an ambitious program for modernization that included
roads, canals, a national university, an astronomical observatory, and
other initiatives. The support for his proposals was limited, even from
his own party. His critics accused him of unseemly arrogance because of
his narrow victory. Most of his initiatives were opposed in Congress by
Jackson‘s supporters, who remained outraged over the 1824 election.
Nonetheless, some of his proposals were adopted, specifically the extension of the Cumberland Road into Ohio with surveys for its continuation west to St. Louis; the beginning of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the construction of the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal and the Portland to Louisville Canal around the falls of the Ohio; the connection of the Great Lakes to the Ohio River system in Ohio and Indiana; and the enlargement and rebuilding of the Dismal Swamp Canal in North Carolina.
Another blow to Adams’ presidency was his generous policy toward Native
Americans. Settlers on the frontier, who were constantly seeking to
move westward, cried for a more expansionist policy. When the federal
government tried to assert authority on behalf of the Cherokees, the
governor of Georgia took up arms. It was a sign of nullification that
foreshadowed the secession of the Southern states during the Civil War.
Adams defended his domestic agenda as continuing Monroe’s policies. In
contrast, Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren instigated the policy of
Indian removal to the west (i.e. the Trail of Tears).
The Slave Power (sometimes referred to as the "Slaveocracy") was a term used in the Northern United States (primarily in the period 1840-1875) to characterize the political power of the slaveholding class in the South.
The problem posed by slavery, according to many Northern politicians, was not so much the mistreatment of slaves (a theme that abolitionists emphasized), but rather the political threat to American republicanism, especially as embraced in Northern free states. The Free Soil Party first raised this warning in 1848, arguing that the annexation of Texas as a slave state was a terrible mistake. The Free Soilers rhetoric was taken up by the Republican party as it emerged in 1854.
The Republicans also argued that slavery was economically
inefficient, compared to free labor, and was a deterrent to the
long-term modernization of America. Worse, said the Republicans, the
Slave Power, deeply entrenched in the "Solid South", was systematically seizing control of the White House, the Congress, and the Supreme Court. Senator and governor Salmon P. Chase of Ohio was an articulate enemy of the Slave Power, as was Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts.
In his celebrated "House Divided" speech of June 1858, Abraham Lincoln charged that Senator Stephen A. Douglas, President James Buchanan, his predecessor, Franklin Pierce, and Chief Justice Roger Taney were all part of a plot to nationalize slavery, as proven by the Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision of 1857.
Other Republicans pointed to the violence in Kansas, the brutal assault on Senator Sumner, attacks upon the abolitionist press, and efforts to take over Cuba (Ostend Manifesto) as evidence that the Slave Power was violent, aggressive, and expansive.
The only solution, Republicans insisted, was a new commitment to
free labor, and a deliberate effort to stop any more territorial
expansion of slavery. Northern Democrats answered that it was all an
exaggeration and that the Republicans were paranoid. Their Southern
colleagues spoke of secession, arguing that the John Brown raid of 1859 proved that the Republicans were ready to attack their region and destroy their way of life.
In congratulating President-elect Lincoln in 1860, Salmon P. Chase
exclaimed, "The object of my wishes and labors for nineteen years is
accomplished in the overthrow of the Slave Power", adding that the way
was now clear "for the establishment of the policy of Freedom" —
something that would come only after four destructive years of Civil War.
The Slave Years Another Black Mark For America
It seems that as soon as the New Americans finished breaking the back of the Native American the new Christians brought in another group of humans to abuse. These two categories of humans, American Indians and African slaves lived a parallel life of abuse, but since the Native Americans were total failures as slaves they had to be disposed of, thus the African became much more of a commodity.
Receipt for $500.00 payment for slave, 1840. (US$10,300 adjusted for inflation as of 2007[update].)
"Recd of Judge S. Williams his notes for five hundred Dollars in full
payment for a negro man named Ned which negro I warrant to be sound and
well and I do bind myself by these presents to forever warrant and
defend the right and Title of the said negro to the said Williams his
heirs or assigns against the legal claims of all persons whatsoever.
Witness my hand and seal this day and year above written. Eliza Wallace
The first Africans were brought to Jamestown in 1619 by a Dutch slave
ship which was trying to get to the Spanish possessions further south
but got blown off course. The English colonists bought the human cargo
but did not make slaves of them, instead they made them indentured
servants. When they had served their indentures they were freed, given
land and tools and accepted as members of the colony just like any
English indentured servants. They were even permitted to vote. In 1619,
a Dutch ship arrived in Jamestown, Virginia. It picked up tobacco and
paid for it with 20 black African captives which the Dutch probably had
seized from a slave trader bound for the Spanish West Indies. By 1700,
enslaved blacks would comprise a majority of the work force in some of
the southern colonies. More Africans were brought to the colony and
sold but their indentures were gradually lengthened until they became
eventually life long (terms of 99 years for instance) and eventually
they were just enslaved outright. Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. Before the widespread establishment of chattel slavery, much labor was organized under a system of bonded labor known as indentured servitude.
The 17th century saw an increase in shipments with slaves arriving in the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. Irish immigrants brought slaves to Montserrat in 1651. And in 1655, slaves arrive in Belize.
Economics of slavery
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The plantation economies of the New World were built on slave labor. Seventy percent of the slaves brought to the new world were used to produce sugar, the most labor-intensive crop. The rest were employed harvesting coffee, cotton, and tobacco, and in some cases in mining.
The West Indian colonies of the European powers were some of their most
important possessions, so they went to extremes to protect and retain
them. For example, at the end of the Seven Years’ War in 1763, France agreed to cede the vast territory of New France to the victors in exchange for keeping the minute Antillean island of Guadeloupe.
Slave trade profits have been the object of many fantasies. Returns
for the investors were not absurdly high (around 6% in France in the
18th century), but they were considerably higher than domestic
alternatives (in the same century, around 5%). Risks — maritime and
commercial — were important for individual voyages. Investors mitigated
it by buying small shares of many ships at the same time. In that way,
they were able to diversify a large part of the risk away. Between
voyages, ship shares could be freely sold and bought. All these made
the slave trade a very interesting investment.
By far the most successful West Indian colonies in 1800 belonged to
the United Kingdom. After entering the sugar colony business late,
British naval supremacy and control over key islands such as Jamaica, Trinidad, the Leeward Islands and Barbados and the territory of British Guiana
gave it an important edge over all competitors; while many British did
not make gains, a handful of individuals made small fortunes. This
advantage was reinforced when France lost its most important colony, St. Dominigue (western Hispaniola, now Haiti), to a slave revolt in 1791
and supported revolts against its rival Britain, after the 1793 French
revolution in the name of liberty. Before 1791, British sugar had to be
protected to compete against cheaper French sugar.
After 1791, the British islands produced the most sugar, and the
British people quickly became the largest consumers. West Indian sugar
became ubiquitous as an additive to Indian tea. Nevertheless, the
profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to less than 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution in the latter half of the 1700s.
Historian Walter Rodney
has argued that at the start of the slave trade in the 16th century,
even though there was a technological gap between Europe and Africa, it
was not very substantial. Both continents were using Iron Age
technology. The major advantage that Europe had was in ship building.
During the period of slavery the populations of Europe and the Americas
grew exponentially while the population of Africa remained stagnant.
Rodney contended that the profits from slavery were used to fund
economic growth and technological advancement in Europe and the
Americas. Based on earlier theories by Eric Williams, he asserted that
the industrial revolution was at least in part funded by agricultural
profits from the Americas. He cited examples such as the invention of the steam engine by James Watt, which was funded by plantation owners from the Caribbean.